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Liturgy of the High Holy Days
Liturgy of Tisha B’Av
Development of the siddur
Liturgy of Conservative Judaism
How to pray
Siddur – (Hebrew: סדור, plural siddurim סדורים) The basic prayer book. It contains the set order of daily prayers. Some are for weekdays, others for Shabbat and festivals. They may all be published in a single book. Many publishers break this into 2 volumes (Weekday, and Shabbat/Festivals.) The word siddur comes from the Hebrew root Hebrew: ס.ד.ר meaning “order”, as in “set order of prayers.”
Machzor is a special form of the siddur, with prayers added for important holidays. The most common ones are used for the High Holy Days – Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Some Jews use of mahzorim for the three pilgrimage festivals of Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot. The word mahzor ח־ז־ר means “cycle”, as in “cycle of prayers.”
Bentcher (or Birchon) – is a small booklet with prayers for Shabbat home rituals, Grace After Meals, and prayers for celebrations such as weddings. Bentcher is a Yiddish word that actually derives from the Latin term benediction.They commonly have tefilot (prayers) for:
Sabbath and Holiday eve candle lighting; Blessing the Children; Sabbath eve and morning Kiddush, and other occasions, Zemiroth (songs) for Sabbath Day; Havdalah – Ending the Shabbath. Grace after meals for events such as a Brit milah (circumcision) and weddings. Blessings before and after eating.
Haggadah הַגָּדָה (“telling”) sets forth the order of the Passover Seder. Reading it is a fulfillment of the mitzvah (commandment) to tell one’s children of the Israelite’s liberation from slavery in Egypt as described in the Book of Exodus.